Pain relief (analgesia)
See also: Cancer pain
The endocannabinoid system is involved in a host of homeostatic and physiologic functions, including the modulation of pain and inflammation.
Cannabis has been used for millennia as a pain-relieving substance. Evidence suggests that cannabinoids may prove useful in pain modulation by inhibiting neuronal transmission in pain pathways.
Bud buddies have assisted many people with pain, one of our members suffers with:

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN, or TGN)
Which is a severe neuropathic chronic pain disorder affecting the trigeminal nerve (the nerve carries sensations from the face to the brain and controls facial motor functions such as biting and chewing), nicknamed “the suicide disease” it has been described by clinicians as one of the most painful conditions known.
It is thought that TN is caused by loss of myelin from the sensory fibres within the nerve root itself and it is estimated that 1 in 15,000 or 20,000 people have TN, although the actual figure may be significantly higher due to misdiagnosis. TN symptoms usually appear in individuals over 50 years old, but there have been cases in individuals as young as three years old.
“The combination of THC with the non-psychotropic cannabis constituent CBD has a higher activity than THC alone”
The CBD/THC buccal spray (Sativex) was found to be effective in treating neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. Chronic neuropathic pain can also be treated with cannabis extracts containing THC, or CBD, or a combination of both.
Cannabinoids (and terpenes) have been found to exert significant analgesic effects in various chronic pain conditions. Orally administered cannabidiol and the terpene β-caryophyllene (found in many cannabis strains) is particularly effective.
“Short-term co-administration of morphine with THC caused an upregulation of CB1 protein in the spinal column of rats, far greater than THC or morphine given alone”
We are well aware at Bud Buddies that there is an interaction between morphine and THC, in our experience the effects of morphine are enhanced by the use of THC and we advise people who are taking THC to reduce their dosage if they are going to have morphine administered. Our experience is backed up by the research of Walter Siegfried Loewe who has demonstrated a synergy generated by cannabis extracts combined with other drugs:
“Normal men subjected to a thermal pain stimulus did not experience analgesia from a low dose of Nabilone (a synthetic THC analogue), or a low dose of morphine. But co-administration of the drugs produced an analgesic effect”

Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain
“The phyto-cannabinoids have efficacy in the treatment of various chronic pain conditions with greatest promise as a therapeutic adjunct in treating peripheral and central neuropathic pain and inflammation-mediated chronic pain.
Download the .pdf: Here

Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain
“The present study adds to a growing body of literature supporting the use of cannabis for the treatment of neuropathic pain. It provides additional evidence of the efficacy of vaporized cannabis as well as establishes low dose cannabis (1.29%) as having a favourable risk-benefit ratio”
Download the .pdf: Here

Cannabinoids for Neuropathic Pain:
“Cannabis has been used for pain relief for centuries, although the mechanism underlying their analgesic effects has remained poorly understood until the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands in the 1990’s. During the last two decades, a large number of research papers have demonstrated the efficacy of cannabinoids and modulators of the endocannabinoid system in suppressing neuropathic pain in animal models”
Download the .pdf: Here

Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey
“Almost all respondents (97%) used medical cannabis primarily for relief of chronic pain. Average reported pain relief from medical cannabis was substantial. Average pre-treatment pain on a zero to ten scale was 7.8, whereas average post-treatment pain was 2.8, giving a reported average improvement of 5 points. This translates to a 64% average relative decrease in pain.
Other reported therapeutic benefits included relief from stress/anxiety (50% of respondents), relief of insomnia (45%), improved appetite (12%), decreased nausea (10%), increased focus/concentration (9%), and relief from depression (7%). Six patients (6%) wrote brief notes relating how cannabis helped them to decrease or to discontinue other medications. Comments included the following: “Medical cannabis replaced my need for oxycodone. Now I don’t need them at all.” “I do not need Xanax anymore.” “In the last two years I have been able to drop meds for anxiety, sleep, and depression.” “I’ve cut back 18 pills on my morphine dosage.”
Download the .pdf: Here

Cannabinoids in cancer pain management
Role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and prospective application
“Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are found mainly in the central nervous system and, in less abundance, in certain peripheral tissues. At the peripheral level, they are localised in the adrenal gland, adipose tissue, heart, liver, lung, prostate, uterus, ovary, testis, bone marrow, thymus, tonsils, and presynaptic nerve terminals. More significantly for the purposes of the present review, they are found at central and peripheral levels of the pain pathways. The distribution of cannabinoid receptors provides an anatomical explanation for the analgesic effects of the cannabinoids”
Download the .pdf: Here

Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder and many sufferers report that cannabis can be very effective at reducing and in some instances completely stopping the tremors and shaking associated with this debilitating disease. For consistent relief cannabinoids need to be taken at regular intervals to maintain the effect and although the condition is not “cured” by cannabis, it can provide relief from the symptoms.

Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders:
“CBD is not psychoactive (it does not activate CB1 receptors), it is well-tolerated and exhibits a broad spectrum of therapeutic properties”
“CBD has also been found to be highly effective as a neuroprotective compound in experimental models of parkinsonism”
“It is possible that CBD has not become a licensed medicine (except in Sativex®) because of patenting problems”
Download the .pdf: Here

The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders
“The pharmacology of cannabis is complex with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesia or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia or ataxia and non-existent for myoclonus or restless legs syndrome”
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CBD for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease
“The results of this pilot study showed that CBD may be effective, safe and well tolerated for the treatment of the psychosis in PD. However, randomised double-blind controlled assays would be necessary to further confirm this observation”
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Whilst Israel allows the prescription of medical marijuana for any of its soldiers suffering from PTSD, efforts to persuade the US Federal administration to legalize marijuana for disabled U.S. war veterans who suffer from the condition have so far been unsuccessful.
Cannabis to help you sleep: Increased frequency of medical cannabis use among those with PTSD
“Consistent with prior research, this study found increased rates of coping oriented use of cannabis and greater frequency of cannabis use among medical users with high PTSD scores compared with low PTSD scores. In addition, sleep improvement appears to be a primary motivator for coping oriented use”
Download .pdf: Here

Research on children for the effects of prenatal exposure to marijuana have found no detrimental indications between marijuana-exposed babies in terms of health, temperament, personality, sleeping patterns, eating habits, psycho-motor ability, physical development, or mental functioning. In fact, other studies indicate that babies actually benefit from exposure to cannabinoids whilst in the womb.

Marijuana use in pregnancy Dr Melanie Dreher
Pregnant women in Jamaica use marijuana regularly to relieve nausea, as well as to relieve stress and depression, often in the form of a tea or tonic.
In the late 1960s, Melanie Dreher was chosen by her professors to perform an ethnographic study on marijuana use in Jamaica to observe and document its usage and its consequences among pregnant women.
Dreher studied 24 Jamaican infants exposed to marijuana prenatally and 20 infants that were not exposed. Her work evolved into the book Women and Cannabis: Medicine, Science and Sociology, part of which included her field studies.
Most North American studies have shown marijuana use can cause birth defects and developmental problems. Those studies did not isolate marijuana use, however, lumping cannabis with more destructive substances ranging from alcohol and tobacco to meth and heroin.
In Jamaica, Dreher found a culture that policed its own ganja intake and considers its use spiritual. For the herb’s impact when used during pregnancy, she handed over reports utilizing the Brazelton Scale, the highly recognized neonatal behavioural assessment that evaluates behaviour.
The profile identifies the baby’s strengths, adaptive responses and possible vulnerabilities. The researchers continued to evaluate the children from the study up to 5 years old. The results showed no negative impact on the children, on the contrary they seemed to excel.

Cannabis is used by many BB psoriasis sufferers to treat psoriasis; the positive reaction is thought to be due to the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids and their regulatory effects on the immune system. Regular topical applications of a cannabis based cream or lotion can be beneficial and effective for many sufferers.

Endocannabinoid system of the skin: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities
“The therapeutic value of cannabinoid agonists in the clinical management of hyper proliferative skin disease (e.g. psoriasis, which is characterized by a highly accelerated turnover of epidermal keratinocyte proliferation) and skin tumors of various cutaneous cell origins”
Download the .pdf: Here